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Natural environment

Municipal Unit of Palamas

   The Municipal Unit of Palamas is in its entirety flat, except for a small part at its north-eastern end. In particular, there are in the area of the local community of Vlohos the hills Asterio (313 m) and Makryvouni (350 m), the hill Lykorema  in the area of the local community of Agios Dimitrios (430 m) and Kastro in the local community of Metamorphosis (329 m). The average altitude of the area is 113 metres.

   According to data from the Palamas meteorological substation, the climate can be described as continental with alternating wet and dry seasons. On the one hand,this is due, to the fact that high mountains rise in the western part of the regional unit of Karditsa and, on the other hand, to the fact that there is a long distance between the regional unit of Karditsa and the sea.

   The average annual temperature is 15,3 degrees Celsius. The warmest month is July (average temperature 27,6 degrees Celsius, maximum 40 degrees Celsius) and the coldest month is January (average temperature 3, 4 degrees Celsius, minimum -10 degrees Celsius).

The hydrographic network of the area is characterized as quite rich. The area is crossed by the rivers Onochonos, Kalentzis, Enipeas and Farsalitis, as well as many streams. All the rivers that flow through the municipality of Palamas end up in the Pinios River, which is the source of all the rivers and torrents originating from the Municipal Unit of Fyllo in mountainous Thessaly.

Municipal Unit of Fyllo

   The Municipal Unit of Fyllo is characterized as entirely flat, with mountainous and semi-mountainous areas, according to the European Union standards.

   In general, the climate is continental. Winter is usually severe and wet, with increased humidity and frost at night, while summer is hot and dry, with temperatures often exceeding 40 °C. Snowfall also occurs during the winter to early spring. Maximum rainfall occurs during the months of October to March (which accounts for 70-75 % of total rainfall). In contrast, the months of April to September, which is the period of sowing, growing and harvesting of most of the crops in the study area, account for only 20-25 % of total rainfall, while the highest evaporation values occur during the same period.

   The hydrographic network of the area is rich. The area is crossed by the rivers Enipeas and Farsalitis, which flow into the Pinios River. The programme ‘Reconnaissance of the Natural Environment of the country’ (Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources 1984) has identified a pollution problem in the rivers of the area, resulting from the use of toxic fertilisers and pesticides.

Municipal Unit of Sellana

   The Municipal Unit of Sellana is characterized as a flat area. More specifically, the average altitude of the local communities is 100m in the district of Proastio, 95m in the district of Marathea, 95m in the district of Kalogriaina, 95m in the district of Agia Triada and 98m in the district of Pedinou.

   Climatologically the area is subject to a continental type of climate and is characterized by very cold winters and very hot summers.

   The hydrographic network of the area is characterized as quite rich. There is a wealth of surface water in all parts of the municipality. In addition to the Pinios, the rivers ‘Megas’ and ‘Vuvulina’ flow through its territory.The Pamisos river was diverted for flood control reasons to another course, west of the municipality in 1952. The recipient of the wider hydrological basin of the prefecture of Karditsa is the river Pineios.